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Enneagram

Enneagram Type 1 - 'The Reformer'

A summary of what it means to be an Enneagram Type 1

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Enneagram Type 1s are driven in life to make positive change in the world. They have a strong moral compass that guides their every action. A Type 1 advocates for change and progress and is often unhappy with leaving the world as it is. They have high standards that make them exacting, cautious and prone to perfectionism.


Key Personality Traits of an Enneagram Type 1

What are the core traits of a Type 1?

Here we summarize the main traits. In general:

  • Type Ones have strong integrity
  • Type Ones are practical, exacting, and cautious
  • Type Ones set high standards for themselves
  • Type Ones are guided by their moral code
  • Type Ones are driven by intrinsic, principled motivations
  • Type Ones are gifted at guiding, teaching, and instructing

Data: How Rare is Type 1?

Which Enneagram type is the rarest and which is the most common?

Figure 1: Global distribution of each Enneagram type.

how rare type two

What this chart shows

This chart shows the percentage of the population who belong to each Enneagram type. We see that Type 4s are the most common and Type 6s are the most rare. Type 1s are the second most common at 16.3% of the global population.

Notes:
  • 1. n=11,271
  • 2. Population: Global
  • 3. Dataset last updated:

Data: Which Country has the Highest Proportion of Type 1?

Survey data on global population frequency of Enneagram Type 1

Figure 2: Regions with highest percent of Type 1s

which country has the highest percent

What this chart shows

This chart shows the countries with the highest and lowest percent of respondents with Enneagram Type 1 personality type. This helps identify which regions have an above or below average proportion of Type Ones. We see that of those reporting their country as 'Ghana' there is an above average proportion of Type 1s, and of those reporting their country as 'Nepal' there is a below-average proportion of Type 1s.

Notes:
  • 1. n=11,271
  • 2. Population: Global
  • 3. Dataset last updated:
  • 4. Data is derived from users' self-report responses to the question "What is your country of nationality?".
  • 5. Countries with insufficient sample sizes have been excluded from this study.

What it Means to be an Enneagram Type 1

An outline of what it means to be a Type 1 - The Reformer

Type Ones are always looking for ways to improve the world. They look for ways to have influence, to assert pressure and affect change. They find ways to overcome adversity through moral principles in order to make a difference. They are organized and demand high standards of themselves and others, but are prone to making short-sighted decisions.

Type Ones tend to throw themselves into causes and they aim to correct injustice. Guided by their personal principles, they can be unyielding which makes them honest and trustworthy. As a result, Type Ones have high levels of integrity and they tend to stick to their word. This often means that they are placed into positions of trust.

Glory or principle?

Type Ones are often prompted by intrinsic motivations rather than fame or attention.

Ones are practical and aim to participate in action. In this sense, they wish to be useful and effective. Type Ones are driven by a personal sense of mission that they can help reduce what they see as disorder and injustice. In other words, they are often prompted by intrinsic motivations rather than fame or attention. However as a result, Type Ones can sometimes be perfectionists and overly critical, and can have issues with being patient and content. They can find it difficult to get along with people who have conflicting opinions and may also struggle bonding with “Head” Enneagram types - as they are often dispassionate and stoic.


Dimensions of Type 1 - The Reformer

The three main dimensions of Enneagram Type 1

When we perform factor analysis on the core behaviors of each Enneagram type, we find that Type Ones exhibit positive correlations with four core traits (or 'Dimensions') as we shall call them. Dimensions are specific behavioral indicators that underpin a person's enneatype. Think of them as building blocks of a person's personality.

Consider the four Dimensions which came out as having strong correlation with Type One personality type, and it helps to understand what underpins a Type One's behavior.

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Self-Efficacy

An Enneagram Type One tends to have high levels of self-efficacy. They have confidence in their ability to achieve their goals, affect the world around them, and meaningfully control their life’s direction.

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Principled

An Enneagram Type One tends to have very principled behavior. They are inclined to following rules and restrictions. This sense of order gives them a consistency and reliability.

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Perfectionism

An Enneagram Type One tends to look for perfectionism within systems and with behaviors. They advocate change through moral principles, readily finding fault with imperfection. Ones can sometimes be perfectionists and overly critical.

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Need for Achievement

An Enneagram Type One tends to engage in causes with discipline. This can make them high achievers as they hold themselves to high standards.

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Spontaneity (Reversed)

An Enneagram Type One tends to have low levels of spontaneity. They enjoy their order and the rules, and they rarely across as impulsive, much more comfortable with orderly behaviour.


Data: Enneagram Type 1 Dimensions Profile

The dimensions of Type 1

We studied the core personality traits (dimensions) of Enneagram Type Ones. The radar chart below shows the results of our survey.

Figure 3: Radar chart of core personality traits (dimensions) of Type Ones

dimensions

What this chart shows

This chart shows how Type Ones score on 14 key personality traits. The scores on each scale are derived from our internal research and present a helpful shorthand to describe the Enneagram Type One personality profile. For example we see that Type Ones score high on Perfectionism and low on Spontaneity.

Notes:
  • 1. n=11,271
  • 2. Population: Global
  • 3. Dataset last updated:
  • 4. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) was used to extract 14 distinct personality dimentions from the Enneagram questionnaire.

Type 1: Heart Type, Head Type, or Body Type?

Which of the three centers of intelligence is a Type 1?
  • body type icon Body type

The nine Enneagram types are grouped into three centers of intelligence according to how they fundamentally approach the world: Body Types; Heart Types; and Head Types. There are three Enneagram types in each center of intelligence and Type Ones are a Body Type.

 

body type enneagram

 

Interestingly, Type Ones can sometimes persuade themselves that they are “Head” types and that they are primarily moved by rational argument and logic, but the truth is that they are more people of instinct and passion who use these qualities to impact their principles and actions.

Type Ones are Body Types. Body Types make decisions based on instinct and gut feeling.


Data: Type 1 Genders

Survey data on Type 1 by genders

Type Ones are mostly male (55.2%) with 44.4% female and 0.3% non-binary.

Figure 4: Type 1s by gender

genders

What this chart shows

The split between genders across the entire Type One population was 44.4% female, 55.2% male, 0.3% non-binary.

Notes:
  • 1. n=1,837
  • 2. Population: Global Type Ones
  • 3. Dataset last updated:
  • 4. Data is derived from Type One users' self-report responses to the question "What is your gender?"

Data: Proportion of Enneagram Type 1s in each Religion

Percent of people who are Type 1 by major religion

Are Type Ones more inclined towards certain religions? From our research we see that Sikhs are more likely to be Type one than Buddhists are.

Figure 5: Percent of Type Ones in each major religion

religions

What this chart shows

This chart shows what percentage of eight religions are Type 1, and the global average percent of people who are Type 1. This helps identify whether a particular religion has an above-average or below-average proportion of Type 1s.

Notes:
  • 1. n=11,271
  • 2. Population: Global
  • 3. Dataset last updated:
  • 4. Religions without a sufficient sample size were not included.
  • 5. Data is derived from users' self-report responses to the question "Which religion do you most identify with?"

Type 1 Strengths and Weaknesses

What are the positive attributes of an Enneagram Type 1

Every Enneagram type has strengths and weaknesses, personality traits that stand out and others that can be unhelpful. Here we will answer the question of 'what are the main strengths and weaknesses of being a Type one Enneagram?'

Info Table
Strengths Weaknesses
Defends the rights of others Can be critical of others and themselves
Have great motivation with issues that impact their personal values Potentially ardent perfectionism can upset themselves and others
Awareness and integrity Might miss harsh truths if they don't fit with personal world view
Very principled around moral issues Dichotomous thinking about moral issues
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Note: The weaknesses will be exacerbated when the Enneagram Type one has an unhealthy level of development. Likewise, the strengths will increase when the Type One has a healthy level of development.


Enneagram Type 1 Fears and Desires

A list of the core fears and desires of Type 1s

Each Enneagram type has fears and desires; things to avoid and things to seek out.

Fears

Things Type 1s should avoid

Core fear: To become morally corrupt and to find themselves rejecting the moral values they currently hold.

  • Unable to tell right from wrong
  • Not reaching their high standards
  • Ambiguity and incompetence

Desires

Things Type 1s should seek

Core desire: Wanting to live in a world where there is no injustice, corruption, and suffering for all the people of the planet.

  • Always looking to improve things
  • Rid the world of injustice
  • Championing causes

Data: Type 1 Age Distribution

Grouped survey data on Type 1 ages

We surveyed the age of Type Ones and grouped the data.

Figure 6: Enneagram Type 1 by age

ages

What this chart shows

This chart shows that Type Ones tend to be more common in the 21-50 age bracket. This is in line with Kohlberg's stages of moral development, which suggests that adults tend to display “post-conventional morality” i.e., morality based on personal principles and values. However, younger and older people tend to display conventional morality i.e., rules handed down from authority figures. As a result, adults are especially likely to become Type Ones, but both older and younger people are less likely to become Type Ones.

Notes:
  • 1. n=11,271
  • 2. Population: Global
  • 3. Dataset last updated:

Type 1 Arrows: Type 1s at Their Best and Their Worst

What are Enneagram arrows and how do they work?

Every Enneagram type has two potential arrow types that they can achieve according to their state of stress or state of growth. None of us are static personalities, and sometimes we are better versions of ourselves and other times we are not achieving our potential.

Both arrows are important influences. To obtain a complete picture of the Type One personality, you must take into consideration the basic overview, the two arrows, and the wings.

arrow image type 1

Type One arrow

Type 1 arrow chart

When a Type One is in flow, what is called Direction of Integration, Type Ones become more joyful, pleasant, and more spontaneous as if they were healthy Type Sevens.

  • Direction of Integration = Healthy Type 7
  • Direction of Disintegration = Unhealthy Type 4
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Tip: Being open to new ideas can help an Enneagram Type One become better integrated with Type Sevens.

What wings can a Type 1 have?

Type ones can also exhibit traits associated with their adjacent Enneatype. For Type One the adjacent Enneatypes are 9 and 2. A Type One can either have a Two-wing (1w2) or a Nine-wing (1w9). With either of these wings, the Type One would then exhibit certain traits of that wing type.


Data: Type 1 Sexual Orientation

Grouped survey data on Type 1 ages

We surveyed sexual orientation amongst Enneagram Type Ones.

Figure 7: Enneagram Type 1 by sexual orientation

sexual orientation

What this chart shows

This chart shows what percentage of each a particular sexual preference are Type One. For example 17% of people reporting as heterosexual are Type One. This compares with 16.3% of all people who are Type One. Heterosexuals are more likely to be Type Ones than lesbians are.

Notes:
  • 1. n=11,271
  • 2. Population: Global
  • 3. Dataset last updated:

Data: Type 1 Qualifications

Survey data on Type 1 academic qualifications

We surveyed Type 1s on their highest level of academic qualification.

Figure 8: Highest level of qualification held by Type 1s

qualifications

What this chart shows

This chart shows the percent of the population who reported holding a particular qualification as their highest qualification. By comparing data for Type One and all types, we can see whether Type Ones are more or less likely to hold a particular qualification. We see that Type Ones are more likely than the average population to hold as their highest qualification "Postgraduate Degree, Doctorate, or equivalent Qualification". This implies that Type Ones are more likely to be highly educated.

Notes:
  • 1. n=11,271
  • 2. Population: Global
  • 3. Dataset last updated:
  • 4. Data is derived from users' self-report responses to the question "Your highest level of qualification".

 


page author ben

Chloe Yarwood, MSc

University of Chichester, Advanced Applied Psychology

Chloe Yarwood, MSc in Advanced Applied Psychology from University of Chichester. Specialist in personality type theory and developing valid personality questionnaires.